We are all e-citizens: A practical guide to being ethical in digital spaces (research blog 1)

“A person is her or his information. “My” in “my information” is not the same as “my” in “my car” but rather the same as “my” as in “my body” or “my feelings”; it expresses a sense of constitutive belonging, not of external ownership, a sense in which my body, my feelings, and my information are part of me but are not my (legal) belongings.” – Luciano Floridi

For my cyberculture research this semester, I’ve (somewhat naively) chosen to delve into the deeply bewildering but nonetheless fascinating world of ethics in the age of information.

Far, far from being the simple and defined area I thought it to be, my research thus far has uncovered a complex web (read: absolute cluster-f**k) of academic and popular discourse encompassing numerous overlapping vortices of knowledge in the area.

To give you an idea, in my research, I came across the following terms/topic areas: e-democracy, cyber-democracy, cyber-ethics, digital rights, e-citizenship, intercultural computing ethics (ICE), digital media ethics, the ethics of information, consequentialist ethics and utilitarianism, deontology, virtue ethics, feminist ethics… (I could go on.)

In the video below, Damon Horowitz discusses data and ethics to an audience in Silicon Valley: “What’s the formula that we can use in any situation to determine what we should do, whether we should use that guy’s data or not? What’s the formula? There’s not a formula. There’s not a simple answer.

After much confusion and deliberation, however, I did manage to make some kind of sense of it all (well, kind of!). Below are some distinctions/definitions/reasoning which I feel need to preface a discussion and summary of my research:

  1. If there is no distinction between our offline reality and online reality (Aren’t we all ‘onlife’?), why is a discussion of ethics in digital spaces/digital media relevant? This was the first and most obvious tension I came across in my research. Yes – the lines between our digital lives and non-digital lives are blurred if not indistinguishable. This means that the moral codes and ethics we practice offline also apply online. But digital spaces have presented us with some entirely new ethical challenges, too. In Digital Media EthicsCharles (2013) acknowledges three ethical challenges: 1.) The sorts of ethical conundrums already familiar to us, that are similarly found in traditional media. E.g, ‘Can we illegally copy a song for our own use?’ 2.) These familiar difficulties with new ‘wrinkles.’ E.g, the fact that new media has enabled an easy, cheap and accessible way of making perfect copies of someone’s song, and 3.) Challenges that are entirely unique to digital media. E.g, in the quote by Floridi at the beginning of this blog, it is pointed out that there is a discrepancy between ownership, privacy and legal rights in digital and non-digital spaces. The ethical challenge presented depends on whether these notions are situated online or offline.
  2.  Rest assured, this is not a discussion informed by moral panics. Predictably, I came across multiple articles and reports forewarning young people and adults of the dangers and risks involved in ‘being online’, and much advice on what’s acceptable and not acceptable. Some of these kinds of articles were not only outdated but steeped in moral panic, or as Charles (2013) tells, “technology good” and “technology bad.” These kinds of dichotomous analyses are something that I want to avoid.
  3. How will I define what’s ‘ethical’? I know just enough about philosophy to know just how incredibly vast and complex the discipline is, and just how much I really don’t know. So I’ll be upfront about this: whilst I’ll endeavour to be as informed as possible, my discussion of ethics will be situated within my own, basic, subjective understanding of it. Maybe this is best. To get a little meta, I don’t know how I feel about even trying to argue for the correctness of a singular theory of ethics (Wikipedia tells me this is actually a metaethics theory called ‘ethical pluralism’).

In light of all of this, the scope of my research will be to unpack some of the ethical challenges that we, as everyday people who use the internet, knowingly or unknowingly tangle with. I will focus primarily on the challenges which are familiar to analogue, but with new ‘wrinkles’, and those that are particular to digital spaces (as mentioned above.) The judgement of the ethical correctness of an action will be a thoughtful one, but one that is highly subjective and one that may not necessarily belong within the canon of philosophical understanding.

The eventual product and format of my research will be a series of short videos imparting practical information and advice for everyday people navigating this area. I just know it’s going to be difficult to reduce some of these issues into a bite-sized form with tangible takeaways (rather than just meandering commentary, like this blog), so I’ll try to include many links in YouTube descriptions for further research.

Topic areas I’ve whittled my research down to are the following:

  1. Navigating a new privacy: Ownership, data and surveillance
  2. The ethics of free stuff: Intellectual property
  3. Minimise harm: Gender, sexuality and porn
  4. E-citizenship: Sillos, algorithms and democracy

In my next blog, I’ll be summarising my research in these areas, and detailing more on my digital artefact. Stay tuned!

Practice Development Project: Week 6

Project Pitch:

In my project, I want to explore the sensory perception and consciousness, the ‘old brain’, and our human experience of both (how they relate/conflict).

My research into the Light and Space movement has steered me toward looking at sensory perception and light. Artists like James Turrell and Robert Irwin sought to subvert our experience of light in order to bring an awareness to our own sensory perception – and the physiology of this. This forefronts consciousness, i.e, to see ourselves see.

In my research, I also came across an artist called Anne Lindberg. In her bio on her website, she talked about wanting her works to appeal to the ‘Old Brain’ –  to activate primal understandings (security, fear, hunger, gravity, sexuality, anxiety, self-protection.)

In my project, I want to try to tangle with both concepts mentioned above, as I think their relationship is interesting. I want to activate the new brain understandings through fore fronting consciousness, as well as the Old Brain through texture, form, rhythm and sound, and highlight the dialogue between both for the viewer.

The idea for my project is an installation work featuring a number of spherical frosted glass objects (similar to what I used in my material experimentation) hanging from the ceiling at varying heights. Inside the spheres are battery operated lights. I want the spheres to have a very soft glow and organic textures (I will explore using material covers to achieve this.)

To activate primal understandings, I want to use primarily sound and rhythm. I’m thinking sounds like the sound of breathing, crying, eating, screaming – sounds related to the Old Brain. I came across interesting information about the old brain/new brain which will inform how I use rhythm:

 

  • Conscious sensation and reaction – by the cerebrum or new brain – can take about 2 seconds.
  • Unconscious sensation and reaction – by the cerebellum or old brain – is around 10 times faster.

I’m figuring out how exactly I can use sound and rhythm in my work. This will need further thought and iteration.

Inspired by our class discussion in week 6, below is a diagram of how the conceptual, aesthetic and functional aspects of my work work separately and together for my project:

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I also am taking into account some of the feedback/ideas from my classmates, although I think they may be overestimating my technical abilities (I’m unfortunately unable make mini tsunamis caused by voice).

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Practice Development Project: Week 5

Research Your Project

Although the progression of my Research Development Project hasn’t exactly been lineal (one minute I’m talking about non-profit marketing, the next, light/space in art) – I have been learning and progressing nonetheless. Through my contextual research into the Light and Space movement, I’ve been introduced to a whole new way of understanding light, how it can relate to consciousness/awareness, and it’s relationship with space and colour. Though my material experimentation, I learned about the relationships between various textures, materials and light, and played around with transforming light into a physical object.

From all of this, I’ve been inspired to ask questions and explore new areas. Obviously I’m in the very initial stages of project formation, without knowing who my group will be and what we’ll be working on. Here’s a little ideas brain dump of what I’m interested in developing thus far:

Ideas to explore:

  • Temporality/the ephemeral
  • Sensory perception
  • ‘Old Brain’ and texture, colour, light, shape
  • Consciousness
  • Ubiquity/salience
  • Physiological/visceral experience
  • Physicality/abstract

Materials:

  • Soft fabrics and plastics: chiffon, coloured plastic bags, plastic wrap
  • Frosted glass (may be difficult to obtain)
  • Skylights/Windows
  • Soft, flowing textures
  • Hard, structural textures
  • Paper (tracing, tissue)
  • Artificial and natural lights

Media technologies:

  • Video
  • Film
  • Projection
  • Photography
  • Sound

What historical development informed this field?

Impressionism: placed an emphasis on accurate depiction of light in its temporal nature, and the inclusion of movement as a crucial element of human perception and experience. This focus on light and sensory perception broke new ground and paved the way for following movements.

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Colour field: is characterized primarily by large fields of flat, solid colour spread across or stained into the canvas creating areas of unbroken surface and a flat picture plane. In color field painting “color is freed from objective context and becomes the subject in itself.” Whilst not working directly with light, the movement explored visceral experience for the viewer (rather than art as a signifier). This is later pushed further by the Light and Space movement.

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Light and Space Movement: was concerned with “making the spectator’s experience of light and other sensory phenomena under specific conditions the focus of their work.” They emphasised sensory perception by subverting our ordinary experience of light.

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What is happening right now that is interesting?

James Turrell is still creating works that explore light and space. He has created many Skyspaces that are still being commissioned today, such as the one below, which was created in 2013.

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Turrell is also exploring sensory deprivation through his works. This can be seen in the exhibition ‘Ganzfeld.’ Ganzfeld is a German word to describe the phenomenon of the total loss of depth perception as in the experience of a white-out.

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I’m interested in the various ways we can forefront sensory perception for viewers as a I believe this is potent. I’d love to perhaps incorporate video and projection into this. I’m also really intrigued by how, as artists, we can speak to our ‘old brain.’ I find this intersection between art and psychology meaningful, and would love to push it further.

Practice Development Project: Week 4

Finding Opportunity

Luckily, and unluckily, i’m someone who’s constantly future tripping. Which means I’ve given some pretty significant thought on the steps i’ll need to take to build my desired career (via sleepless nights and unnecessary fretting.) I worked out early on that in comms/marketing, a degree isn’t a direct pathway to a job, so I’ve interned/volunteered/worked in my study field throughout most of my degree to gain some experience. Through these opportunities, I’ve gained some skills, but also invaluable insight into career paths in the non-profit marketing space. I’ve also learnt about myself – what I’m good at and what needs work. I know I’ve still got so much to learn, but at the moment, I’m trying to focus on being patient, present, trust that I’ve done the work, and lean into the (kind of) unknown.

I’ve also given up on the idea of finding the ideal role that I will aim for, achieve, and then proceed to love for the rest of my life. That isn’t me. I know where I’m heading after I graduate (non-profit marketing), but I also know that I’ll move on from this!

Do some research regarding your field. Be bold and realistic about where you want to end up (what is your desired position) and where you are now. What are the steps required to make your goals a reality. What are the realistic time frames involved in reaching you goal?

Desired position: Head of Digital/Creative Director (Non-Profit Marketing)

You may begin with a simple diagram of how your field/ industry works. What are the positions? How are they related.

Path to a Director/Manager in Marketing:

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Identify three potential mentors – work out who they are, how they got where they are, and how you can contact them. Superstars are hard to contact and London is hard to get to- so be practical in your choices. You want someone with local contacts, knowledge and experience who will have the time and generosity to offer.

  1. Alina Azaar – Former Marketing Manager/Director (I think) at IMB/SCARF Board Member (Marketing and PR Advisor)
  2. Ashleigh Dewar – Marketing Coordinator (Engineering Faculty at UOW)/SCARF volunteer
  3. Bronte Hogarth – Former Head of Digital at 1 Million Women

Being prepared:

I recognise that there are some skill sets that ideally I’d build/strengthen in order to give me the best chance at gaining a full-time paid position in non-profit marketing. I created a little map of the skills I need, and how whether they need building or strengthening.

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Practice Development Project: Week 3

Researching ‘My Hero’

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To be honest, I deliberated quiet a bit about who to choose as ‘my hero’ on my Media Arts blog. I’ve gravitated away from idolising ‘successful people’, and gravitated toward admiring people who, like all of us, are deeply flawed, but live a life of integrity, have the courage to be vulnerable, give a shit, seek truth…(it’s not a definitive list.)

Whilst a career Artist could absolutely be this person, it just so happened that none came to mind. Instead, the author Elizabeth Gilbert did. Actually – Elizabeth Gilbert may actually be an Artist. Anyway.

Gilbert wrote a book, ‘Big Magic’, which has influenced my practice as an Artist and my view on creativity/creating. It probably wouldn’t make it on to the required reading at University, as there’s a definite spiritual/self-growth feel to it. ‘Art’ as an institution isn’t taken too seriously, but creating, exploration and playfulness are.

As someone who’d never cut it as career artist, this resonates with where I’d like to head: toward creating as a source of enjoyment, truth seeking, inquiry, connectedness and self-care.

“Creativity is sacred and not sacred. What we create matters enormously, and it doesn’t matter at all.”

Elizabeth Gilbert’s practice:

Elizabeth Gilbert is an American author, essayist, short story writer, biographer, novelist, and memoirist. She’s best known for Eat Pray Love, an extraordinarily successful novel (which later became a feature film).

What I personally admire Gilbert is not necessarily for Eat Pray Love, but for her book ‘Big Magic’, where she explores creativity, the creative process, and creative living beyond fear. She’s also produced podcasts and blogs around this topic which I have read and loved.

Gilbert’s practice (in Big Magic, at least) has become a meta-practice, where she reflects on her own practice as a writer, and shares what she’s learnt. Gilbert’s philosophy around ‘creating’ (which I think can be translated to her philosophy on practice) is ultimately to create without fear. This idea can be teased out to encompass the following ideas, from what I can remember:

  • Creative living should be driven by curiosity, not fear. This does not mean fear isn’t there – just don’t let it in the driver’s seat.
  • Create ego-less work. You are not what you create.
  • Push it forward. Put it out there (challenge perfectionism).
  • Be disciplined. Show-up everyday and do the work. “It’s a simple and generous rule of life that whatever you practice, you will improve at.”
  • Don’t be a martyr. Suffering isn’t part and parcel of being creative. “Far too many creative people have been taught to distrust pleasure and put their faith in struggle alone”
  • Give it you’re all, then let go of the outcome. “You do what you can do, as competently as possible within a reasonable time frame, and then you let it go.” 
  • Your creativity doesn’t have to be important, take the pressure off yourself. “You’re not required to save the world with your creativity. Your art not only doesn’t have to be original, in other words, it also doesn’t have to be important.” 

Describe how his/ her practice is situated in a larger field. For example, are they pioneers in what they do? Or perhaps their works challenge the conventional ways of thinking or working? Or they are recognised as being excellent in their fields?

I think Gilbert’s work kind of straddles two larger fields. One being writing/journalism, and the other being the self-development/wellness sphere.

I won’t pretend I know enough about literature to guess at who broke the ground for the work of Gilbert, but I know that her writing is influenced by Marcus Aerulius, Charles Dickens and Jack Gilbert (not a relation).

Find out more about them: What are his/ her skills started with? What may be some of their failures? What are some of the hurdles they overcame (or not)?

Gilbert has a degree in Arts (Political Science) from NYU. She the worked in various jobs (cook, a bartender, a waitress, and a magazine employee) while writing in her free time. Eventually, she ended up as a highly successful journalist and freelance writer. Following this, she published a number of books including the memoir, Eat Pray Love, which catapulted her to fame. Now a public figure, Gilbert writes books as well as produces podcasts and guest lectures/speeches.

In Big Magic, Gilbert details the numerous times she’s ‘failed.’ She spent years and years writing before she could rely on it as a source of income. Her work was rejected by publications numerous times. She published a book about marriage and then got divorced. She frames these failures as formational events, rather than being something to be ashamed of/regretful about. In the talk below, she gives insight into her ‘failures’:

What is the most important thing for them that they ‘hold dear’? What is their core value that they never deviate from?

I think for Gilbert, and for many people, she’d probably say that she holds love, courage or vulnerability dear.

How do you relate to this core value?

I think these kind of life values translate to our practice as artists. If you have the courage to create honestly, to take emotional risks and be vulnerable, your work has the ability to profoundly connect with people. If we create with love (as cheesy as it sounds) rather than fear, we’re in a mind-frame where we can be curious, exploratory and productive.

Practice Development Project: Week 2 (6/6)

Material Research: Light + Plastic/Fabric/Paper/Glass

Inspired by James Turrell and Robert Irwin, I wanted to experiment with bringing an awareness to ‘seeing’ as a physiological process (‘seeing oneself see’). By doing this, one becomes abruptly aware of the illusory nature of our reality – it is merely sensory input. Through my contextual research, i’ve learned that this can be explored by subverting the way we experience light.

I wanted to transform light from being a ubiquitous and unnoticed presence to a physical tangible object in the foreground. I wanted to also experiment with materials/texture/colour/form to see how this changes meaning. Lastly, I also wanted to gain some knowledge around the technicalities of working with light and different materials.

I conducted these experiments in my garage, as it is the darkest room available to me. I used an iPhone for a light source and an obliging sister as a helper. I also used a large piece of thick cardboard with a cut-out in the middle, to provide a dark frame around a window of light.

Material 1: Tracing Paper

In the right iteration, I really like how the tracing paper is translucent enough to allow light to illuminate it, but thick enough to be quite structural and create hard edges. The glowing square really stands out. I like how minimal it is and how it looks like it’s floating. Tracing paper seems to disperse light evenly.

Material 2: soft plastic (green plastic bag + plastic wrapping) and frosted glass

The images in the centre and left are actually of the same materials (green plastic bag + frosted glass). It was interesting to find out that the closer the coloured material is to the light source, the more saturated the colour. The frosted glass seems to give the light a soft, ethereal glow, whereas the soft plastics create a highly textured/detailed effect.

Material 3: Fabric (cotton and sheer fabric)

The material on the left is a sheer fabric (not sure of the type.) On the right is cotton draped over the glass sphere. Fabric illuminated by light seems to give off a soft, muted glow. I think this is kind of effective as it is illuminated but also looks removed from an artificial light source.  You can’t really tell there’s an iPhone light behind these. It seems that the thicker the material over the light is, the more evenly the light is dispersed. I think the iteration on the right could be improved by somehow removing the folds in the fabric.

 

Material 5: Cardboard Cut-Out + Sky

This iteration wasn’t as effective as I’d hoped. It’s hard to completely block out light unless you’re in a dark room with a window. Thus, the colours around the cut-out aren’t uniform. I do like the idea of framing everyday scenery like this. I think it works toward bringing an awareness to seeing, as discussed above.

Practice Development Project: Week 2 (4/6)

Given the results of the exercises above propose three experiments or explorations that you will enact as a program of creative material research over the next week.

  1. Explore light (artificial) and different fabrics (such as scrim) with various levels of transparency. Artist reference: Robert Irwin
  2. Explore using ‘windows’ of natural light to bring a conscious awareness to an ordinary, natural phenomena (seeing yourself see). Artist reference: James Turrell
  3. Explore how we can use sensory phenomena (colour and light) to alter visceral experience for viewer. Appeal to the ‘old brain.’ Artist reference: Anne Lindberg

Ground your proposals in the research you’ve done. This might mean – exploring one of the (historical) qualities that you identified in your media archeology, or emulating a technique used by one of your contemporaries, or to test, explore or experiment with the ideas, concepts or questions posed in the academic research.Its important that this creative research be grounded in a particular field of inquiry that is well contextualised in terms of contemporary practice and historical development.

  1. Irwin used scrim fabric to almost ‘objectify’ light in a very literal sense. This brings an awareness to light as a physical phenomena rather than an ubiquitous, invisible presence. Experimenting with different fabrics with varying qualities could raise interesting questions about how we experience light.
  2. Turrell created sculptural works with atriums revealing the sky. This kind of framing of natural light/sky invites us to be conscious of ourselves seeing. It also draws attention to the ephemeral/temporal as the sky is always changing. There are many variables I could experiment with here to see how this changes meaning.
  3. In a statement on her website Lindberg explained that her practice aims to appeal to the ‘old brain’ wear we experience fear, protection, anxiety, pleasure etc. I’d like to play around with different colours/lights/spaces to see how we experience them viscerally and psychologically.

Practice Development Project: Week 2 (3/6)

Since delving into research this week, I feel that i’m beginning to develop an understanding of the meaning of light in Art. I actually really enjoyed researching the Light and Space movement. I didn’t expect to be exploring ideas around consciousness and perception for this project. It’s pretty juicy stuff. Below are a few random thoughts I’ve jotted down:

  • Light is ubiquitous, intangible and elusive. Bringing awareness to light  (such as in the Light and Space movement) brings a somewhat unnerving (also seductive) awareness to perception – the physiology of seeing. This leads us to ask questions about reality and illusion. Turrell says that “there’s a sweet deliciousness to seeing yourself see something.” Delicious yes, also confronting.
  • Light and colour are inseparable. As sensory phenomena, colour and light speak to our ‘old brain.’ and activate primal understandings (security, fear, gravity, sexuality, anxiety, self-protection.)
  •  Exploring light in Art demands an attention to human experience. This is because light is so intertwined with sensory perception.

Workshop Questions: Media Archeology 

Research the history of the medium and practices with which your are working or the one identified in the research of your contemporaries. Find three different historical vectors. If you are working in virtual reality that might be; narrative cinema, simulation, immersion. If you are working in marketing it might be Propaganda, Brands, Targeted Advertising.

  • Light and Space
  • Colour Field
  • Op Art

Map out a historical Timeline for each of these vectors identifying key points of development, instances of expression, protagonists etc.

I’ll do just one.

Colour Field:

  • Emerged in New York City during the 1940s and 1950s
  • During the late 1950s and 1960s, Color field painters emerged in Great Britain, Canada, Washington, DC and the West Coast of the United States
  • Emerged out of Abstract Expressionism
  • Influenced Neo-expressionism

Mark key protagonists and developments on this timeline noting which of these might provide vectors for deeper research and analysis – which moments speak to the contemporary moment and how. Think back to the example of ‘fake news’; a great example of a timeline of antecedents.

Rothko, Still and Newman (along with others in the movement) approached the canvas as a field, rather than as a window in which to depict figures. They posited the idea that the abstract form could be a “living thing…a vehicle for an abstract thought-complex.”

I think this is potent in contemporary art as we are constantly navigating the path between Art as a lived experience, ‘a living thing’ that interacts with an audience, and Art as a representation of ‘a living thing.’

In these key protagonists find theoretical perspectives, concerns, or techniques that might inform the other vectors of your research.

Rothko stated that “If you are only moved by color relationships, you are missing the point. I am interested in expressing the big emotions – tragedy, ecstasy, doom.”

Perhaps he’s emphasising that Art should be something experienced viscerally, rather than simply being a signifier?

Identify three historical techniques, qualities, or effects that have been marginalised or forgotten – formulate a practical experiments that emulate them materially.

Colour Field works emphasize the flatness of the canvas or paper because that is what a painting is literally about.

Applying this material awareness to light could be an experiment worth undertaking.

Theoretical/Conceptual Research:

Identify 5 academic papers related to your field using the Libraries search function or using google school scholar. Work out which three are most immediately relevant and read scan them for Key Ideas (read them properly during the next week)

Color Perception and the Art of James Turrell – Beverage, P

James Turrell : Geometrie des Lichts = geometry of light – Turrell, J

Enlightened Spaces – Gayford, M

Out of the studio, Into the light – Grundberg, A

Curating Lights and Shadows, or the Remapping of the Lived Experience of Space. – Papadaki, E

Practice Development Project: Week 2 (2/6)

Workshop Questions: Contemporary Context

Compile a list of five contemporaries in your field or who might inform your research either practically or conceptually.

  1. Apichatpong Weeresthetkanul
    2. Mark Rothko
    3. Anne Lindberg
    4. James Turrell
    5. Robert Irwin

Find one work each from three of these contemporaries that resonates with your project.

Anne Lindberg – Raume Yellow (2010)

James Turrell –  Within Without (2010)



Robert Irwin –  Untitled (1971)

Describe the work in detail as if you were reverse engineering it. What skills and knowledge sets are involved? What antecedents does the work evoke? How does it work technically (in the one hand) and conceptually/theoretically (on the other).

Robert Irwin’s Untitled (1971) is site specific work, made of an oblique plane of translucent scrim fabric. Throughout the 60s, Irwin’s practice has explored consciousness and perception, and the physical, sensory and temporal experience of space (alongside his contemporaries in the West Coast Light and Space movement.) I think that the understandings gleaned from these explorations are the ‘skills and knowledge sets’ central to this work.

Irwin has created a sensory experience that invites a viewer to be conscious of perception. Light and space are no longer elusive and intangible – here they’re fore-fronted and objectified. I think this is kind of unsettling as we are suddenly aware of ‘seeing’ as a physiological process, that involves our bodies receiving sensory input. We are challenged to ‘see ourselves see’, and to understand reality as a sensory illusion. The work is also ethereal and quite beautiful. So it’s both challenging and seductive.

Technically, the use of translucent scrim fabric is potent. A quote on Irwin’s use of scrim fabric from this analysis: 

Throughout the 1970s, he repeatedly worked with translucent scrim, a fabric routinely used in theatrical stage productions. Appearing opaque unless lit from behind, this material is often used to situate actions taking place in the foreground and background; to metaphorically frame the action in the past and present, or to distinguish realms of consciousness versus dream-states. In Irwin’s hands, scrim becomes a formally divisive yet supremely gentle and ethereal (dare one say spiritual?) agent of transformation.

Identify an practical/material experiment that involves emulating a facet of each of these works.

Using Irwin’s work as an example, I could experiment with scrim fabric, light and space, and explore how this interplays with our notion of sensory perception. I could create an 3D object with the fabric and see where I could place lighting (inside the object or outside?) and see how this alters meaning.

How do each of these works fit within a wider Series of works, how does this work fit within the artists wider Practice/Practices

James Turrell and Robert Irwin were both part of the Light and Space movement. This movement was concerned with “making the spectator’s experience of light and other sensory phenomena under specific conditions the focus of their work.”